Somewhere on the west of Mexico is a peninsula of North America called the Baja California Peninsula or Lower California. It is 1250 km long from Mexicali in the north, all the way to Cabo San Lucas in the south. It is what separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California.
Baja California is separated by two divisions, the northern part or Baja California Norte and the southern part, Baja California Sur. The people from the northern part are called Baja-Californiano while the southerners are known as Sud-Californiano. Though Baja California is divided by these two divisions, it is never stated on paper that there is a Baja California Norte. It is only a term but never used as a political designation.
Baja California has several mountain ranges collectively known as the Peninsular Ranges. The northernmost is called the Sierra Juarez. South of the Sierra Juarez is the Sierra San Pedro Martir and has a higher range than Sierra Juarez. The highest point is the Cerro de la Encantada. Tres Virgenes is a volcanic complx found in Baja California Sur while Sierra de la Giganta lies along the shore of the gulf below Tres Virgenes. Further down south of Baja California Sur is the Sierra de la Laguna while on the east side of the peninsula, the Bahia de los Angeles lies facing the Gulf of California.
The province of California in New Spain was divided into two, namely Alta California and Baja California on May 19,1773 by Fray Francisco Palou. There is a marker today that commemorates the spot where the dividing committee started measuring the province’s partition. This marker is at the back of the Mision San Miguel Arcangel de la Frontera close to the Ensenada.